Solar photovoltaic power generation
TThe effect of directly converting light into electricity (see Figure 1.1) is called the photovoltaic effect, which was discovered in 1839 by Antoine Cesar Bequerel.
Figure Basic operation of photovoltaic solar cells
With the many applications of photoelectric conversion technology in space in the 1940s, photovoltaic technology has truly developed. The depletion of petroleum resources in the 1970s made photovoltaic technology gradually applied on land and promoted its technological progress. In some remote areas, photovoltaic technology is the most reliable and effective way to use off-grid solutions to obtain electricity. With the increase of people’s demand and the continuous development of industry, photovoltaic technology is becoming more mature and can be applied to many fields. In order to be more competitive with fossil fuels, photovoltaic technology still has greater challenges in reducing costs and improving efficiency. Solar panel components in photovoltaic systems, especially battery products, have developed tremendously. Choosing an effective load is a necessary condition for obtaining the maximum output of the photovoltaic system. This is also a way to achieve low-cost solar power generation.
The cost of a photovoltaic system is not only reflected in “how much money was paid in the early stage”, but also in “how much energy it can convert and how long it can last” and capital investment. Both wafers and thin-film solar cells have their advantages and disadvantages. Wafer solar cells are usually made of silicon, which is expensive but highly efficient. The price of thin-film solar cells is relatively low but the efficiency is also low. However, because they can be fabricated on flexible substrates, they have more applications.
In developing countries, when the cost of the transmission grid exceeds the available budget, photovoltaic power generation is a major tool for successful rural electrification. It is a carrier to improve life and health, and it also has the advantage of limiting the generation of greenhouse gases in terms of environmental protection.
Among the many solar photovoltaic power generation applications, the most attractive is of course low-power household appliances.